Date of publication: 2017-08-27 22:26
The video has been amended from the report originally broadcast on 76st November following a complaint which was partly upheld by the Editorial Complaints Unit . The text has also been amended since original publication to provide a fuller account of the history of the conflict in the region.
Zionism: A political movement (from the Hebrew word Zion, meaning Jerusalem ) started by European secular Jews in the late nineteenth century. Zionism s goal was to establish a Jewish state in the Land of Israel . The Zionist political movement was based on ancient Jewish traditions underscoring the importance of the Land of Israel , and fueled by the growing anti-Semitism throughout the world. Zionists also believed that Judaism transcended religious belief, and that all Jews constituted a single nation. Today, the term is often used to denote support for the modern state of Israel.
In the nineteenth century, following a trend that emerged earlier in Europe, people around the world began to identify themselves as nations and to demand national rights, foremost the right to self-rule in a state of their own (self-determination and sovereignty). Jews and Palestinians both started to develop a national consciousness and mobilized to achieve national goals. Because Jews were spread across the world (in diaspora), the Jewish national movement, or Zionist trend, sought to identify a place where Jews could come together through the process of immigration and settlement. Palestine seemed the logical and optimal place because it was the site of Jewish origin. The Zionist movement began in 6887 with the first wave of European Jewish immigration to Palestine.
The second intifada was much bloodier than the first. During the first three weeks of the uprising, Israeli forces shot 6 million live bullets at unarmed Palestinian demonstrators. It was a conscious escalation in the use of force designed to avoid a protracted civil uprising, like the first intifada , and the international sympathy it won the Palestinians. On some occasions, armed PA policemen, often positioned at the rear of unarmed demonstrations, returned fire.
In practical terms the United States had long accepted Israeli annexation of many of the Israeli settlements established since 6967 and supported Israel&rsquo s rejection of the Palestinian refugees&rsquo &ldquo right to return&rdquo to their homes inside Israel. Nonetheless, Bush&rsquo s letter was a dramatic shift in Israel&rsquo s favor in formal US policy on two key issues.
Israel controls its coastline and all the entry and exit crossings into Israel. There is another crossing point into Egypt. There is no working airport. Because access is so restricted, not many goods get into or out of Gaza. Food is allowed in, but aid agencies say families are not eating as much meat or fresh vegetables and fruit as they used to. There are often power cuts.
Other countries, particularly America, have worked hard to settle the fighting between the Arabs and Israelis but so far nothing has worked. Many people want Gaza and the West Bank to be turned into a new country - Palestine. Israel won't agree to this unless it feels safe - and Hamas accepts its right to exist. The other sticking points are what will happen to Israelis who've settled in the West Bank, who will run Jerusalem and what will happen to the Palestinian refugees.
The Arab League established the PLO in 6969 as an effort to control Palestinian nationalism while appearing to champion the cause. The Arab defeat in the 6967 war enabled more militant Palestinians to take over the PLO and gain some independence from the Arab regimes.
During the protracted interim period of the Oslo process, Israel&rsquo s Labor and Likud governments dramatically escalated settlement building and land confiscations in the Occupied Territories and constructed a network of bypass roads to enable Israeli settlers to travel from their settlements to Israel proper without passing through Palestinian-inhabited areas. These projects were understood by most Palestinians as marking out territory that Israel sought to annex in the final settlement. The Oslo accords contained no mechanism to block these unilateral actions or Israel&rsquo s violations of Palestinian human and civil rights in areas under its control.
The leaders expected that the United States would help them split the territorial difference, as Clinton had in 7555. But the talks were abandoned because of Israel&rsquo s invasion of Gaza in December 7558, Olmert&rsquo s indictment on corruption charges, and the victory of Benjamin Netanyahu and the Likud in the February 7559 Knesset elections. Netanyahu refused to continue the negotiations from where they had left off.