Date of publication: 2017-08-22 05:38
It is widely believed that methods articles attract more citations than other types of articles. However, this is not in fact true. Many journals devoted entirely to methods do not achieve unusual impact. But it is true that among the most cited articles in the literature there are some super classics that give this overall impression. It should be noted that the chronological limitation on the impact calculation eliminates the bias super classics might introduce. Absolute citation frequencies are biased in this way, but, on occasion, a hot paper might affect the current impact of a journal.
Now, turn to the early literature that African Americans created. Read and direct class discussion of Phillis Wheatley&rsquo s &ldquo On Being Brought from Africa to America.&rdquo Have your students consider the literary representations of Africa in terms of binary oppositions: heathenism-Christianity, barbarism-civilization, light-dark. What is the image that Wheatley has of Africa? By contrast, what is her image of America? This is a good place to begin contemplation of a couple of major dichotomies between African and western cultures. The first is heathenism versus Christianity. The second is barbarism versus civilization. How does Wheatley&rsquo s poem shape these dichotomies for reader consumption? How &ldquo American&rdquo is Wheatley&rsquo s perception of Africa?
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For all the writers and works, think of Africa as origin, of Africa as homeland. Hughes&rsquo s initial shock at being labeled &ldquo white&rdquo did not deter him from embracing Africa as home. How is the concept of Africa as home manifested in other literary works of the Harlem Renaissance? What are the characteristics of that home welcoming, embracing, questioning, denying, elusive, unattainable?
During Ummayad period, many Indian scientific, technical, medical and other works were translated into Arabic. Many Indian scholars were invited to Baghdad and other places for such work. Some Muslim Hakims, though they do want their names to be mentioned claim that they only cautiously and consciously protecting the medical practices of Adharva Veda and Sushruta, which advocate the usage of animals, insects and non-vegetarian medicinal preparations. In fact, the Sufis and Sufi literature have been enormously influenced by India in many aspects.
J. Thomas, Thirty Four Conferences Between the Danish Missionaries and Malabar Brahmans (or Heathen Priests) in the East Indies , London, 6769.
Thomson Reuters does not depend on the impact factor alone in assessing the usefulness of a journal, and neither should anyone else. The impact factor should not be used without careful attention to the many phenomena that influence citation rates, as for example the average number of references cited in the average article. The impact factor should be used with informed peer review. In the case of academic evaluation for tenure it is sometimes inappropriate to use the impact of the source journal to estimate the expected frequency of a recently published article. Again, the impact factor should be used with informed peer review. Citation frequencies for individual articles are quite varied.
75. J. Samuel Iyer, History of the Tranquebar Mission in Tamil . 6756-6955 , The Tranquebar Printing & Publishing House, Madras, 6955.
Cullen joined other writers of the Harlem Renaissance in attempting to encourage black pride rooted in African heritage. But there is still ambiguity here. Pride and celebration border on creating stereotype. There are still black folks running through the jungles of Africa in Cullen&rsquo s poem, half-naked, and chained to the lusts of their bodies these stereotypes are not far removed from those that haunted African Americans being wild, uninhibited, and lascivious.
One of Bennett&rsquo s poems that alludes to Africa is entitled &ldquo To a Dark Girl.&rdquo It echoes Cullen&rsquo s and Hughes&rsquo s work in its assertion of the beauty of black women, an assertion that is designed to combat the negative images of black women that a history of slavery has put in place in America. Bennett reminds black women of their forgotten &ldquo queenliness&rdquo and encourages them to reclaim it. This directive was typical of several writers of the Harlem Renaissance. How could black people undo the damage of history? Undo the damage of slavery? They could claim Africa, assert their beauty over and over again until the masses believed in it.